Wireless energy transfer
Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission (also known as the Tesla Effect) is the process that takes place in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load, without interconnecting wires in an electrical grid. Wireless transmission is ideal in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed, but interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous, or impossible.
Though the physics of both are related, this is distinct from wireless transmission for the purpose of transferring information (such as radio) through waves, where the percentage of the power that is received is only important if it becomes too low to successfully recover the signal. With wireless energy transfer, the efficiency is a more critical parameter and this creates important differences in these technologies.
The most common and the most viable form of wireless power transfer is carried out using Inductive Power Transfer.
History of Inductive Power Transfer
- 1820: André-Marie Ampère describes Ampere’s Law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field.
- 1831: Michael Faraday describes Faraday’s Law of Induction (an important basic law of electromagnetism).
- 1864: James Clerk Maxwell mathematically modeled the behavior of electromagnetic radiation.
- 1865: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirmed the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Hertz’s “apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves” is generally acknowledged as the first radio transmitter.
- 1865: Nikola Tesla demonstrates the illumination of vacuum bulbs wirelessly (without any wires connected to the bulbs) at the World’s Fair in Chicago.
- 1866: Hutin & LeBlanc, espousing long held views that inductive energy transfer should be possible, file a US Patent describing a system for power transfer at 3 kHz
- 1867: Jagdish Chandra Bose ignites gunpowder and rings a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves, showing that communication signals can be sent without using wires.
- 1869: Jagdish Chandra Bose transmits signals over a distance of nearly a mile.
- 1871: Guglielmo Marconi transmits Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 km.
- 1872: Nikola Tesla files his first patents dealing with Wardenclyffe tower.