Marvelous Inventions

The timeline of historic inventions is a chronological list of particularly important or significant technological inventions.

Note: Dates for inventions are often controversial. Inventions are often invented by several inventors around the same time, or may be invented in an impractical form many years before another inventor improves the invention into a practical form. Where there is ambiguity, the date of the first known working version of the invention is used here.

Paleolithic era
  • Indeterminate: Music, Language
  • 2.4 Ma BP: Olduwan – struck stone tools, in East Africa
  • 1.65 Ma: Acheulean – struck and reworked stone tools, in Kenya
  • 1.4 Ma: Knife in Ethiopia
  • 1 Ma: Controlled fire and sterilization of food and water (cooking) in East Africa
  • 500 ka: Shelter construction [1]
  • 100-500 ka: Clothing
  • 400 ka: Pigments in Zambia [2]
  • 400 ka: Spears in Germany [3]
  • 200 ka: Burial in Africa
  • 140 ka: Bone tools in Africa (see Blombos Cave)
  • 140 ka: Shellfishing in Africa (see Blombos Cave)
  • 100 ka: Lithic blades in Africa and the ancient Near East
  • 60 ka: Ships probably used by settlers of New Guinea
  • 50 ka: Flute in Slovenia
  • 50 ka: Bow
  • 43 ka: Mining in Swaziland and Hungary
  • 37 ka: Tally sticks in Swaziland [4]
  • 30 ka: Sewing needles
  • 26 ka: Ceramics in Moravia
  • 25 ka: Atlatl in Northwest Africa [5]
  • 17 ka: twisted Rope (probably much earlier)
  • 15 ka: Boomerang in Australia6
  • 12 ka: Basket weaving

Antiquity

10th millennium BCE

  • Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent
  • Alcoholic beverages in the Fertile Crescent
  • Adobe in the ancient Near East
  • 9500 BCE: Granary in the Jordan Valley

9th millennium BCE

  • 8700 BCE: Metalworking (copper pendant) in Mesopotamia (Iraq)

8th millennium BCE

  • Animal husbandry in the ancient Near East

7th millennium BCE

  • 7000 BCE: Dental drill in Mehrgarh, Pakistan7
  • 6200 BCE: Map in Çatalhöyük
  • Cloth woven from flax fiber

6th millennium BCE

  • Irrigation in the Fertile Crescent
  • Beer in Sumer, Mesopotamia (Iraq)[6]
  • City in Mesopotamia (Iraq)
  • Plough in Mesopotamia (Iraq)

5th millennium BCE

  • Beer and bread in Egypt
  • Wheel and axle combination in Mesopotamia
  • Ice skate in Scandinavia8

4th millennium BCE

  • 4000 BCE: Canal in Mesopotamia
  • 4000 BCE: Stone paved street Ur Iraq
  • 3807-3806 BCE: Timber-engineered roadway in England
  • 3630 BCE: Silk in China
  • 3600 BCE: Free-standing Masonry Architecture at Ġgantija, Gozo, Malta
  • 3500 BCE: Plywood in Egypt
  • 3500 BCE: Writing in Sumer
  • 3500 BCE: Carts in Sumer
  • 3100 BCE: Drainage in the Indus Valley Civilization (India/Pakistan)
  • 3000 BCE: Sailing
  • 3000 BCE: Rice in India9
  • 3000 BCE: Reservoir in the Indus Valley Civilization10
  • Bronze: Susa (Iran)
  • Cement in Egypt
  • River boats in Egypt
  • Noodle in China
  • Comb in Persia (these combs were very refined, so combs themselves are probably older)

3rd millennium BCE

  • 2800 BCE: Button in the Indus Valley Civilization (India)
  • 2800 BCE: Soap in Mesopotamia
  • 2700 BCE: Plumbing in the Indus Valley Civilization11
  • 2630-2611 BCE: Step pyramid: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Papyrus: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Suture: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600s BCE: Pharmaceutical cream: Imhotep in Egypt
  • 2600 BCE: e Chariot in Mesopotamia
  • 2500 BCE: Arch in Mohenjo-daro (Indus Valley Civilization) (India)[12]
  • 2400 BCE: Shipyard in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization) (India)
  • 2400 BCE: Dock in Lothal (Indus Valley Civilization)[13]
  • 2000 BCE: Currency
  • Aqueduct in ancient Egypt and Indus Valley Civilization (India)
  • Dagger in Near East
  • Sickle-sword in Sumer
  • Alphabet in Phoenicia
  • Candles in Egypt
  • Ink in China
  • Sledges in Scandinavia
  • Ski in Scandinavia6

2nd millennium BCE

  • Iron in Anatolia, Caucasus and India
  • Perfume: Tapputi in Mesopotamia
  • Bronze Age sword in Mesopotamia
  • Glass in Egypt14
  • Rubber in Mesoamerica
  • Spoked-wheel chariot: Indo-Iranians
  • Water clock in Egypt
  • Iron Age sword Proto-Celtic
  • Bells in China
  • Fork in China
  • Umbrella in Mesopotamia
  • Calibration in the Indus Valley Civilization16
  • Meteorology in the Indus Valley Civilization16
  • 1300–1000 BCE: Zinc in India17
  • 1000s BCE: Coins in China
  • 1000 BCE: Lens in Assyria
  • 1000 BCE: Central heating: Ondol in Korea18
  • 1000 BCE: Underfloor heating: Ondol in Korea18

1st millennium BCE

  • Cautery in Ancient Rome19
  • Speculum in Ancient Rome19
  • Cross-bladed scissors in Ancient Rome19
  • Surgical needle in Ancient Rome19
  • Cataract surgery in Ancient Rome21
  • 750 BCE: Celestial spheres in ancient Greece22
  • 700s BCE: Button in Ancient Greece, Etruscan civilization6
  • 700 BCE: Chain pump in Babylonia
  • 600s BCE: Latin alphabet in Ancient Rome
  • 600 BCE: Chopsticks in China
  • 592 BCE: Anchor in ancient Greece23
  • 500s BCE: Sugar in India
  • 500s BCE: Dental bridge in Etruria
  • 500s BCE: Kite: Lu Ban in China
  • 500s BCE: Maps in ancient Greece24
  • 500s BCE: Plastic surgery: Sushruta in India
  • 500s BCE: Cosmetic surgery: Sushruta in India
  • 500 BCE: Iron plough in China
  • 499-477 BCE: Horse collar in China25
  • 475 BCE: Scythed Chariot: Ajatashatru in India
  • 400s BCE: Linguistics: Pāṇini in India26
  • 400s BCE: Traction trebuchet in China
  • 400s BCE: Football in China
  • 400s BCE: Catapult in ancient Greece27
  • 400s BCE: Cast iron in China
  • 400s BCE: Crossbow in China
  • 350 BCE: Water wheel in India28
  • 350 BCE: Watermill in India28
  • c. 300: Wootz steel in India
  • 300s BCE: Roman aqueduct in ancient Rome29
  • 300s BCE: Compass in China
  • 300s BCE: Star catalogues: Gan De and Shi Shen
  • 300s BCE: Encyclopedia: Speusippus in ancient Greece6
  • 300s BCE: Screw: Archytas
  • 300s BCE: India ink in India
  • 200s BCE: Diamond (gemstone) in India30
  • 300-100 BCE: Blast furnace in China
  • 300-100 BCE: Cupola furnace in China * 300-100 BCE: Pig iron in China * 285 BCE: Suspension bridge in China * 250 BCE: Lever in ancient Greece * 210 BCE: Chromium use in China * 200s BCE: Compound pulley: Archimedes * 200s BCE: Odometer: Archimedes? * 200s BCE: Archimedes’ screw : Archimedes * 200s BCE: Cashmere wool in India31 * 200s BCE: Contour canal: Shi Lu in China * 200s BCE: Lock gate in China * 200s BCE: Stupa in India32 * 200s BCE: Pagoda in India32 * 202-1 BCE: Bellows in China * 200 BCE: Horseshoe in ancient Rome * 150s BCE: Clockwork (Antikythera mechanism) * 150s BCE: Astrolabe: Hipparchus * 100s BCE: Big-toe stirrup in India33 * 100 BCE: Glassblowing in ancient Rome34 * 100s BCE: Parchment in Pergamon * 500 BCE: Heavy plough in China * 100s BCE: Wheelbarrow in China35 * 100 BCE: Trip hammer in China * 52 BCE: Armillary sphere: Geng Shouchang in China * 40 BCE: Rolling-element bearing in Roman ship * 21 BCE: Collapsable umbrella: Wang Mang36 * Catapult in ancient Near East * South Pointing Chariot in China * Differential gear in China and Greek island of Antikythera * Flash lock in China * Bookbinding in India * Blowgun in India37 * Indigo dye in India38 * Iron pellet in India37 * Jute in Bengal39 * Neem toothbrush in India

[edit] 1st millennium CE

[edit] 1st-5th centuries

  • 1-100 CE: Junk ship in China
  • 1-100 CE: Rudder in China40
  • 38 CE: Hydraulic-powered bellows: Du Shi
  • 50 CE: Mouldboard plough in China and Gaul
  • 77 CE: Encyclopedia (comprehensive work): Pliny the Elder6
  • 78-139: Hydraulic-powered armillary sphere: Zhang Heng
  • 78-139: Seismometer: Zhang Heng
  • 100s: steam engine vending machine syringe force pump: Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt
  • 100s: Carding in India41
  • 105: Paper: Cai Lun in China42
  • 132: Rudimentary Seismometer: Zhang Heng in China
  • 180: Rotary fan: Ding Huan in China
  • 180: Winnowing fan: Ding Huan in China
  • 200s: Kongming lantern (Hot air balloon) in China
  • 200s: Horseshoes in Germany
  • 200-400: Stepwell in India43
  • 300s: Toothpaste in Roman Egypt
  • 400s: Horse collar in China
  • 400s: Cotton gin in India44
  • Fore-and-aft rig in India45
  • Kamal in India46
  • Prayer wheel: Tibet47
  • Three-masted merchant vessel in China48
  • Woodblock printing in China

[edit] 6th-8th centuries

  • 500s: Chess in India49
  • 500s: Ludo in India50
  • 559: Manned kite: Yuan Huangtou
  • 589: Toilet paper: Yan Zhitui in China
  • 605: Open-spandrel segmental arch bridge: Li Chun in China
  • 618-700: Porcelain in China
  • 618-907: Water-powered rotary fan in China
  • 673: Greek fire flamethrower: Kallinikos of Heliopolis
  • 700: Quill pen
  • 700-900: Charitable trust in the Arab Empire51
  • 700s: Destructive distillation: Arabic chemists53
  • 700s: Inoculation: Madhav in India54
  • 721-815: Alembic: Geber (Jabir ibn Hayyan)[55]
  • 721-815: Still: Geber55
  • 721-815: Retort: Geber56
  • 721-815: Filtration: Geber57
  • 721-815: Crystallization: Geber58
  • 721-815: Pure distillation: Geber57
  • 721-815: Distilled alcohol: Geber55
  • 721-815: Distilled wine: Geber55
  • 721-815: Distilled beverage: Geber55
  • 721-815: Mineral acid: Geber59
  • 721-815: Nitric acid: Geber59
  • 721-815: Hydrochloric acid: Geber59
  • 721-815: Sulfuric acid: Geber59
  • 721-815: Uric acid: Geber61
  • 721-815: Acetic acid: Geber58
  • 721-815: Citric acid: Geber58
  • 721-815: Tartaric acid: Geber58
  • 721-815: Aqua regia: Geber59
  • 721-815: Cheese glue: Geber63
  • 721-815: Plated mail: Geber63
  • 721-815: Lustreware: Geber64
  • 721-815: Tin-glazing: Geber65
  • 721-815: Cucurbit: Geber66
  • 721-815: Evacuation tube: Geber66
  • 721-815: Aludel: Geber66
  • 721-815: Artificial pearl63
  • 721-815: Purified pearl63
  • 721-815: Dyed pearl63
  • 721-815: Dyed gemstone [63]
  • 721-815: Artificial gemstone63
  • 721-925: Rose water: Geber, Al-Kindi (Alkindus), Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes)[66]
  • 721-925: Heated bath: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi66
  • 721-925: Sand bath: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi66
  • 721-925: Funnel: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi66
  • 721-925: Sieve: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi66
  • 721-925: Filter: Geber, Al-Kindi, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi66
  • 725: Clockwork escapement mechanism: Yi Xing of China
  • 754: Pharmacy in Baghdad67
  • 754: Drugstore in Baghdad67
  • 758-764: Tar pavement in Baghdad53
  • 763-800: Public hospital: Harun al-Rashid68
  • 763-800: Psychiatric hospital in Baghdad69
  • 794: Paper mill in Baghdad70
  • Amalgamation: Arabic chemists66
  • Ceration: Arabic chemists66
  • Dry distillation: Arabic chemists
  • Solution: Arabic chemists66
  • Sublimation: Arabic chemists57
  • Water purification: Arabic chemists71
  • Purified water: Arabic chemists71
  • Fusible alloy: Arabic chemists66
  • Petrol: Arabic chemists72
  • Apothecary: Arabic physicians73
  • Lateen in India45

[edit] 9th-10th centuries

  • 700-1000: Spinning wheel in India74
  • 800-850: Quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi)[75]
  • 800-850: Mural instrument: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī75
  • 800-850: Sine quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī75
  • 800-850: Horary quadrant: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī75
  • 800-850: Alhidade: Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī76
  • 800-857: Under-arm deodorant: Ziryab77
  • 800-857: Beauty parlour: Ziryab78
  • 800-857: Bangs: Ziryab78
  • 800-857: Chemical depilatory: Ziryab78
  • 800-873: Valve: Banū Mūsā in Iraq79
  • 800-873: Float valve: Banū Mūsā79
  • 800-873: Feedback controller: Banū Mūsā79
  • 800-873: Float chamber: Banū Mūsā80
  • 800-873: Automatic control: Banū Mūsā80
  • 800-873: Automatic flute player: Banū Mūsā81
  • 800-873: Programmable machine: Banū Mūsā81
  • 800-873: Trick drinking vessels: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Gas mask: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Grab: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Clamshell grab: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Fail-safe system: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Mechanical musical instrument: Banū Mūsā83
  • 800-873: Hydropowered organ: Banū Mūsā83
  • 800-873: Hurricane lamp: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Self-feeding oil lamp: Banū Mūsā82
  • 800-873: Self-trimming oil lamp: Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir82
  • 800-1000: Wind powered gristmills in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran84
  • 800-1000: Sugar refinery in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran84
  • 800-1000: Metal block printing in Egypt85
  • c. 800-1000: Switch: Arabic engineers86
  • 800s: Stonepaste ceramics in Iraq87
  • 800s: Black powder in China
  • 800s: Gunpowder in China
  • 800s: Water turbine in the Arab Empire82
  • 800s: Universal sundial in Baghdad88
  • 800s: Universal horary dial in Baghdad89
  • 800s: Vertical-axle windmill in Afghanistan91
  • 800s: Naphtha in Azerbaijan53
  • 800s: Oil well in Azerbaijan53
  • 801-873: Pure alcohol: Al-Kindi (Alkindus)[92]
  • 801-1000: Municipal solid waste handling: Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Masihi93
  • 810-887: Glass from stones: Abbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus94
  • 810-887: convex lens
  • 810-887: Clear colourless high-purity glass: Abbas Ibn Firnas94
  • 810-887: Metronome: Abbas Ibn Firnas96
  • 810-887: Artificial weather simulation: Abbas Ibn Firnas96
  • 813-833: Medical school: Al-Ma’mun68
  • 827: Mechanical singing bird automaton: Al-Ma’mun97
  • 836-1000: Erectile dysfunction treatment: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi, Thabit bin Qurra (Thebit), Ibn Al-Jazzar98
  • 853-929: Observation tube: Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī (Albatenius)[99]
  • 852: Parachute: Abbas Ibn Firnas in al-Andalus61
  • 859: University: Princess Fatima al-Fihri100
  • 875: Hang glider: Abbas Ibn Firnas96
  • 875: Artificial wing: Abbas Ibn Firnas96
  • 875: Flight control frame: Abbas Ibn Firnas96
  • c. 865-900: Kerosene: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) in Iraq53
  • 865-925: Hard soap: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi104
  • 865-925: Chemotherapy: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi105
  • 865-925: Antiseptic: Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi53
  • 900s: Banknote in China
  • 900s: Fire lance in China
  • 900s: Gun in China
  • 900s: Milling factory in Baghdad106
  • 900s: Cartographic grid in Baghdad107
  • 900s: Graph paper in the Arab Empire108[110]
  • 900s: Horizontal-axle windmill in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran91
  • 903-986: Timekeeping astrolabe: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi)[111]
  • 904: Fire Arrow in China
  • 919: Double-piston flamethrower in China
  • 984: Pound lock: Qiao Weiyo
  • 953: Fountain pen: Al-Muizz Lideenillah of Egypt61[113]
  • 960-1000: Restaurant in the Arab Empire114
  • 994: Astronomical sextant: Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi in Persia115
  • 996: Geared mechanical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī116
  • Almucantar quadrant: Arabic astronomers117
  • Navigational astrolabe: Arabic astronomers118
  • Vertical sundial: Arabic astronomers119
  • Polar sundial: Arabic astronomers119
  • Coffee: Khalid in Ethiopia
  • Shaving soap: Arabic chemists
  • Plumb line: Arabic engineers120
  • Reed level: Arabic engineers120
  • Triangulation: Arabic engineers120
  • Geared gristmill: Arabic engineers121
  • Shatranj in Persia
  • Paned window in the Arab Empire122
  • Street lamp in the Arab Empire122
  • Sherbet in the Arab Empire123
  • Soft drink in the Arab Empire123
  • Syrup in the Arab Empire123
  • Mercury escapement mechanism in the Middle East
  • Bridge dam in Iran125
  • Milling dam in Iran125
  • Diversion dam in Iraq125
  • Public library in the Arab Empire127
  • Lending library in the Arab Empire127
  • Library catalog in the Arab Empire128
  • Firecracker in China
  • Snakes and ladders in India

[edit] 2nd millennium

[edit] 11th century

  • c. 1000: Pendulum: Ibn Yunus in Egypt129
  • c. 1000: Injection syringe: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili of Iraq53[131]
  • c. 1000: Hypodermic needle: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili130
  • c. 1000: Cataract extraction: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili130
  • c. 1000: Suction: Ammar ibn Ali al-Mawsili130
  • 1000: Ligature: Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) in Al-Andalus132
  • 1000: Adhesive plaster: Abu al-Qasim133
  • 1000: Curette: Abu al-Qasim134
  • 1000: Retractor: Abu al-Qasim134
  • 1000: Lithotomy scalpel: Abu al-Qasim135
  • 1000: Surgical catgut: Abu al-Qasim
  • 1000: Surgical hook: Abu al-Qasim134
  • 1000: Surgical rod: Abu al-Qasim134
  • 1000: Surgical spoon: Abu al-Qasim134
  • 1000: Inhalational anaesthetic: Abu al-Qasim53
  • 1000: Anaesthetic sponge: Abu al-Qasim53
  • 1000: Oral anaesthesia: Abu al-Qasim53
  • 1000: Cotton dressing: Abu al-Qasim137
  • c. 1000-1009: Monumental astrolabe: Ibn Yunus138
  • c. 1000-1020: Heliocentric astrolabe: Al-Sijzi139
  • c. 1000-1037: Thermometer: Avicenna (Ibn Sina) in Persia140
  • c. 1000-1037: Essential oil: Avicenna141
  • c. 1000-1048: Orthographical astrolabe: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in Persia142
  • c. 1000-1048: Planisphere: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī142
  • c. 1000-1048: Star chart: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī143
  • c. 1000-1048: Laboratory flask: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī144
  • c. 1000-1048: Pycnometer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī144
  • c. 1000-1048: Conical measure: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī145
  • c. 1000-1048: Geared mechanical lunisolar calendar analog computer: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī146
  • c. 1000-1048: Fixed-wired knowledge processing machine: Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī147
  • 1020: Mechanical astrolabe: Ibn Samh in Al-Andalus148
  • 1021: Magnifying glass: Ibn al-Haytham149
  • 1021: Curved mirror: Ibn al-Haytham150]][151]
  • 1021: Pinhole camera: Ibn al-Haytham152
  • 1021: Camera obscura: Ibn al-Haytham152
  • 1025: Cancer therapy: Avicenna137
  • 1025: Hirudotherapy: Avicenna154
  • 1025: Medicinal leech: Avicenna154
  • 1025: Calcium channel blocker: Avicenna155
  • 1025: Pharmacopoeia: Avicenna156
  • 1028-1087: Equatorium: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel) in Al-Andalus158
  • 1028-1087: Universal astrolabe: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī
  • 1031-1095: Raised-relief map: Shen Kuo159
  • 1038-1075: Flywheel: Ibn Bassal in Al-Andalus161
  • 1041: Movable type printing press: Bi Sheng in China
  • 1044: Hand grenade: Zhen Tian Lei in China
  • 1087: Almanac: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī162
  • 1088: Mechanical clock: Su Song
  • 1088: Clock tower: Su Song
  • 1088: Magnetic compass: Shen Kuo in China
  • 1090: Belt drive: Qin Guan in in China
  • 1090: Chain drive in China
  • 1092: Astronomical clock: Su Song
  • 1094: Printed star chart: Su Song
  • Coke fuel in China
  • Complex gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus80
  • Epicyclic gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus80
  • Segmental gearing: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus80
  • Geared mechanical clock: Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Al-Andalus80
  • Weight-driven mechanical clock: Arabic engineers80
  • Celestial globe: Arabic astronomers
  • Clear glass mirror in Al-Andalus53
  • Cobwork in the Maghreb and Al-Andalus163

[edit] 12th century

  • c. 1100: Framed bead abacus in China
  • 1100-1150: Torquetum: Jabir ibn Aflah (Geber)[164]
  • 1100-1161: Tracheotomy: Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) in Al-Andalus165
  • 1119: Watertight hull compartment: Zhu Yu in China
  • 1121: Steelyard: Al-Khazini in Persia144
  • 1121: Hydrostatic balance: Al-Khazini144
  • 1126: Fire arrow: Li Gang in China
  • 1126: Rocket: Li Gang in China
  • 1128: Cannon in China166
  • 1135-1200: Linear astrolabe: Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī in Persia167
  • 1150: Homing pigeons in Iraq and Syria168
  • 1154: Striking clock: Al-Kaysarani in Syria169
  • 1187: Counterweight trebuchet: Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi170
  • 1187: Mangonel: Mardi bin Ali al-Tarsusi172
  • 1190: Mariner’s compass in Italy173
  • Astrolabic quadrant in Egypt174
  • Ventilator in Egypt175
  • Bridge mill in Al-Andalus126
  • Hydropowered forge in Al-Andalus84
  • Finery forge in Al-Andalus84
  • Central heating through underfloor pipes in Syria176
  • Fireworks in China
  • Sunglasses in China

[edit] 13th century

  • c. 1200: Glass mirror in Europe6
  • c. 1200: Combination lock: Al-Jazari in Iraq (Mesopotamia)[61]
  • 1206: Bolted joint lock82
  • 1206: Clock automaton: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Flow control regulator: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Closed-loop system: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Elephant clock: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Hand washing device: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Kitchen appliance: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Camshaft: Al-Jazari178
  • 1206: Connecting rod: Al-Jazari179
  • 1206: Segmental gear: Al-Jazari180
  • 1206: Suction pipe: Al-Jazari
  • 1206: Suction piston pump: Al-Jazari181
  • 1206: Reciprocating piston motion: Al-Jazari181
  • 1206: Double-acting engine: Al-Jazari181
  • 1206: Humanoid robot: Al-Jazari182
  • 1206: Programmable robot: Al-Jazari182
  • 1206: Programmable analog computer: Al-Jazari183
  • 1206: Automatic gate: Al-Jazari184
  • 1206: Pointer: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Hydropowered water supply system: Al-Jazari184
  • 1206: Geared water supply system: Al-Jazari184
  • 1206: Laminate: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Mechanical template: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Paper model: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Calibration: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Sand casting: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Emery powder: Al-Jazari82
  • 1206: Crankshaft-driven chain pump: Al-Jazari185
  • 1206: Hydropowered saqiya chain pump: Al-Jazari186
  • 1206: Intermittent working: Al-Jazari185
  • 1206: Hour hand: Al-Jazari187
  • 1232: Rocket launcher in China
  • 1235: Geared astrolabe with analog computer calendar: Abi Bakr of Isfahan189
  • 1259: Research institute: Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī190
  • 1259: Observatory institution: Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī190
  • 1260: Hand cannon in Egypt59
  • 1260: Explosive gunpowder in Egypt59
  • 1260: Explosive cannon in Egypt59
  • 1260: Handgun in Egypt59
  • 1260: Portable firearm in Egypt59
  • 1260: Cartridge in Egypt191
  • 1260: Dissolve talc in Egypt191
  • 1260: Fire protection in Egypt191
  • 1260: Fireproof clothing in Egypt191
  • 1270: Pure saltpetre: Hasan al-Rammah of Syria59
  • 1274: Siege cannon: Abu Yaqub Yusuf191
  • 1275: Torpedo: Hasan al-Rammah of Syria
  • 1275: Restaurant menu in China
  • 1277: Land mine: Lou Qianxia in China
  • c. 1296: Astronomical compass: Yemeni sultan al-Ashraf192
  • 1297-1298: Wooden movable type printing: Wang Zhen of China

Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.</ref>

  • Crankshaft-driven screw: Arabic engineers193
  • Crankshaft-driven screwpump: Arabic engineers193
  • Sandpaper in China
  • Solid-fuel rocket in China
  • Condom in Italy
  • Buttonhole in Germany6

[edit] 14th century

  • 1304-1375: Astrolabic clock: Ibn al-Shatir194
  • 1304-1375: Compendium instrument: Ibn al-Shatir119
  • 1304-1375: Compass dial: Ibn al-Shatir195
  • 1350: Rope bridge in Peru
  • 1355: Bombard: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Booster: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Matchlock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Multistage rocket: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Naval mine: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Round shot: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Shell: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1355: Wheellock: Jiao Yu and Liu Ji
  • 1371: Polar-axis sundial: Ibn al-Shatir196
  • 32-point compass rose in the Arab world197
  • Musket in China
  • Spherical astrolabe in the Middle East

[edit] 15th century

  • 1400-1429: Plate of conjunctions: Jamshīd al-Kāshī198
  • 1400-1429: Planetary analog computer: Jamshīd al-Kāshī199[201]
  • 1405-1433: Troopship: Zheng He
  • 1405-1433: Treasure ship: Zheng He
  • 1441: Rain gauge: Jang Yeong-sil
  • 1450s: Alphabetic movable type printing press: Johannes Gutenberg
  • 1451: Concave lens for eyeglasses: Nicholas of Cusa
  • 1490-1492: Terrestrial globe: Martin Behaim
  • 1494: Double-entry bookkeeping system: Luca Pacioli
  • 1498: Bristle toothbrush: Hongzhi Emperor
  • Iron-chain suspension bridge in China
  • Arquebus in Europe
  • Rifle in Europe

[edit] 16th century

  • c. 1500: Ball bearing: Leonardo Da Vinci
  • c. 1500: Scissors: Leonardo Da Vinci
  • 1524: Pocket watch: Peter Henlein202
  • 1540: Ether: Valerius Cordus
  • 1551: Steam turbine: Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt203
  • 1556: Spring-powered clock: Peter Henlein and Taqi al-Din202
  • 1559: Six-cylinder pump: Taqi al-Din205
  • 1565: Pencil: Conrad Gesner6
  • 1576: Ironclad warship: Oda Nobunaga[citation needed]
  • 1577-1580: Mechanical seconds clock: Taqi al-Din207
  • 1579: Prefabricated home: Akbar the Great209
  • 1579: Movable structure: Akbar the Great209
  • 1582: Autocannon: Fathullah Shirazi210
  • 1582: Multi-barrel gun: Fathullah Shirazi210
  • 1582: Grain-griding carriage: Fathullah Shirazi211
  • 1589: Stocking frame: William Lee
  • 1589-1590: Seamless celestial globe: Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman212
  • 1589-1590: Seamless metal sphere: Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman212
  • c. 1590: Compound microscope: Zacharias Janssen, Hans Janssen, Hans Lippershey [213]
  • 1593: Thermoscope: Galileo Galilei
  • Musket in Europe
  • Pencil in England
  • High-rise apartment buildings in Shibam214
  • Tower blocks in Shibam215
  • Vertical construction urban planning in Shibam214
  • 1596: Water closet=toiletTemplate:John Harrington&Thomas Crapper

[edit] 17th century

  • 1609: Telescope: Hans Lippershey, Zacharias Janssen, Jacob Metius216
  • 1610: Flintlock: Marin le Bourgeoys
  • 1620: Slide rule: William Oughtred
  • 1623: Automatic calculator: Wilhelm Schickard
  • 1631: Vernier scale: Pierre Vernier
  • 1642: Adding machine: Blaise Pascal
  • 1643: Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli
  • 1645: Vacuum pump: Otto von Guericke
  • 1657: Pendulum clock: Christiaan Huygens
  • 1672: Steam car: Ferdinand Verbiest217
  • 1679: Pressure cooker: Denis Papin
  • 1690: Polhem wheel: Christopher Polhem
  • 1698: Steam engine: Thomas Savery
  • 1700: Piano: Bartolomeo Cristofori

[edit] 18th century

  • 1701: Seed drill: Jethro Tull
  • 1709: Iron smelting using coke: Abraham Darby I
  • 1711: Tuning fork: John Shore
  • 1712: Steam piston engine: Thomas Newcomen
  • 1714: Mercury thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
  • 1731: Octant: John Hadley, Thomas Godfrey
  • 1733: Flying shuttle: John Kay
  • 1737: Marine chronometer (H1): John Harrison
  • 1742: Franklin stove: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1750: Flatboat: Jacob Yoder
  • 1752: Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1759: Shampoo: Sake Dean Mahomet of Bengal
  • 1764: Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves/Thomas Highs
  • 1767: Carbonated water: Joseph Priestley
  • 1769: Water frame: Richard Arkwright/Thomas Highs
  • 1769: Steam road vehicle: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot
  • 1775: Submarine Turtle: David Bushnell
  • 1776: Steamboat: Claude de Jouffroy
  • 1776: Watt steam engine: James Watt
  • 1777: Card teeth making machine: Oliver Evans
  • 1777: Circular saw: Samuel Miller
  • 1779: Spinning mule: Samuel Crompton
  • 1780s: Iron-cased rocket: Tipu Sultan in India219
  • 1780s: Metal-cylinder rocket artillery: Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan in India220
  • 1780s: Iron rocket artillery: Tipu Sultan of India219
  • 1783: Hot air balloon: Montgolfier brothers
  • 1784: Bifocals: Benjamin Franklin
  • 1784: Oil lamp: Aimé Argand6
  • 1784: Shrapnel shell: Henry Shrapnel
  • 1785: Power loom: Edmund Cartwright
  • 1785: Automatic flour mill: Oliver Evans
  • 1786: Threshing machine: Andrew Meikle
  • 1791: Artificial teeth: Nicholas Dubois De Chemant
  • 1798: Vaccination: Edward Jenner
  • 1798: Lithography: Alois Senefelder

[edit] 19th century

[edit] 1800s

  • 1801: Jacquard loom: Joseph Marie Jacquard
  • 1802: Screw propeller steamboat Phoenix: John Stevens
  • 1802: Gas stove: James Sharp
  • 1804: Locomotive: Richard Trevithick
  • 1805: Submarine Nautilus: Robert Fulton
  • 1807: Steamboat Clermont: Robert Fulton
  • 1808: Band saw: William Newberry
  • 1809: Arc lamp: Humphry Davy

[edit] 1810s

  • 1814: Steam locomotive (Blücher):
  • 1816: Miner’s safety lamp: Humphry Davy
  • 1816: Stirling engine: Robert Stirling
  • 1816: Stethoscope: Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec
  • 1817: Draisine or velocipede (two-wheeled): Karl Drais
  • 1817: Kaleidoscope: David Brewster
  • 1818: Bicycle: Karl Drais6

[edit] 1820s

  • 1821: Electric motor: Michael Faraday
  • 1823: Electromagnet: William Sturgeon
  • 1823: Lighter: Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner
  • 1824: Portland cement: William Aspdin
  • 1826: Photography: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
  • 1826: Internal combustion engine: Samuel Morey
  • 1827: Friction match: John Walker
  • 1829: Steam locomotive: George Stephenson6

[edit] 1830s

  • 1830: Thermostat: Andrew Ure6
  • 1830: Stenotype on punched paper strip: Karl Drais
  • 1831: Multiple coil magnet: Joseph Henry
  • 1831: Magnetic acoustic telegraph: Joseph Henry (patented 1837)
  • 1831: Reaper: Cyrus McCormick
  • 1831: Electrical generator: Michael Faraday, Ányos Jedlik
  • 1834: The Hansom cab is patented
  • 1834: Louis Braille perfects his Braille system
  • 1834: Refrigerator: Jacob Perkins
  • 1834: Combine harvester: Hiram Moore
  • 1834: Electric Motor: Thomas Davenport
  • 1835: Revolver: Samuel Colt
  • 1835: Electromechanical Relay: Joseph Henry
  • 1835: Incandescent light bulb: James Bowman Lindsay
  • 1836: Sewing machine: Josef Madersberger
  • 1837: US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport (February 25)
  • 1837: Steel plow: John Deere
  • 1837: Standard diving dress: Augustus Siebe221
  • 1837: Camera Zoom Lens: Jozef Maximilián Petzval
  • 1837: Magnetic telegraph: Samuel Morse
  • 1838: Electric telegraph: Charles Wheatstone (also Samuel Morse)
  • 1838: closed diving suit with a helmet: Augustus Siebe221
  • 1839: Vulcanization of rubber: Charles Goodyear

[edit] 1840s

  • 1840: Artificial fertilizer: Justus von Liebig
  • 1841: Saxophone:Adolphe Sax
  • 1842: Superphosphate fertilizer: John Bennett Lawes
  • 1842: Steam hammer: James Nasmyth
  • 1842: Anaesthesia: Crawford Long
  • 1843: Typewriter: Charles Thurber
  • 1843: Fax machine: Alexander Bain[citation needed]
  • 1843: Ice cream maker: Nancy Johnson
  • 1843: Pile driver: James Nasmyth
  • 1844: The safety match: Gustaf Erik Pasch
  • 1844: Pulp wood for papermaking: Charles Fenerty (Nova Scotia, Canada), and F.G. Keller (Germany)
  • 1845: Pneumatic tyre: Robert Thomson (inventor)
  • 1846: Sewing machine: Elias Howe
  • 1846: Rotary printing press: Richard M. Hoe
  • 1849: Safety pin: Walter Hunt
  • 1849: Francis turbine: James B. Francis
  • 1849: Telephone: Antonio Meucci[citation needed]

[edit] 1850s

  • 1852: Airship: Henri Giffard
  • 1852: Passenger elevator: Elisha Otis
  • 1852: Gyroscope: Léon Foucault
  • 1855: Bunsen burner: Peter Desaga
  • 1855: Bessemer process: Henry Bessemer
  • 1856: Celluloid: Alexander Parkes
  • 1858: Undersea telegraph cable: Charles Wheatstone
  • 1858: Mason jar: John L. Mason
  • 1859: Oil drill: Edwin L. Drake
  • 1859: Lead acid battery: Gaston Plante

[edit] 1860s

  • 1860: Light Bulb, Sir Joseph Swan
  • 1860: Linoleum: Fredrick Walton
  • 1860: Repeating rifle: Oliver F. Winchester, Christopher Spencer
  • 1860: Self-propelled torpedo: Giovanni Luppis
  • 1861: Ironclad (Battleship) USS Monitor: John Ericsson
  • 1861: Siemens regenerative furnace: Carl Wilhelm Siemens
  • 1862: Revolving machine gun: Richard J. Gatling
  • 1862: Mechanical submarine: Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol
  • 1862: Pasteurization: Louis Pasteur, Claude Bernard
  • 1863: Player piano: Henri Fourneaux
  • 1865: Roller Coaster: LaMarcus Adna Thompson
  • 1865: Barbed wire: Louis Jannin
  • 1866: Dynamite: Alfred Nobel
  • 1868: Practical typewriter: Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soule, with assistance from James Densmore
  • 1868: Air brake (rail): George Westinghouse
  • 1868: Oleomargarine: Mege Mouries
  • 1869: Vacuum cleaner: I.W. McGaffers

[edit] 1870s

  • 1870: Chewing gum: Thomas Adams6
  • 1870: Magic Lantern projector: Henry R. Heyl
  • 1870: Stock ticker: Thomas Alva Edison
  • 1871: Cable car (railway): Andrew S. Hallidie

Marvelous Inventions

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